Interpretations of James
Purpose and application
Definitions and usage
The purpose of this document is to establish the comprehension of words and their usage in the Law as used and administered by James.
This document is to take precedence over other definitions, terms and usage that may be used in other jurisdictions.
The application of this document is in accordance with the Authorised Version of the King James Holy Bible.
The definitions and usage herein contained are in accordance with the Faith of James.
All definitions must concur with the usage of the word(s) in the Authorised Version of the King James Holy Bible. Where any conflict may arise, the matter must defer to the Authorised Version of the King James Holy Bible.
Definitions contained from early editions of Black’s Law Dictionary and Bouvier’s Law Dictionary have been used as a primary source.
Butterworths New Zealand Law Dictionary Seventh Edition has been used as a secondary source of definitions.
Where a word or term is omitted from this document then the meaning and usage of said word is to be derived from the following in order of precedence:
1. Authorised Version of the King James Holy Bible
2. Black’s Law Dictionary Second Edition
3. Bouvier’s Law Dictionary First Edition
4. Butterworths New Zealand Law Dictionary Seventh Edition
5. Concise Oxford Dictionary First Issue Large Print Edition 1989
Man (Accuser) claiming another Man (Wrongdoer) done wrong.
Man has the Right to “Question his Accuser” Compare with [Hebeas Corpus Act of 1679] If the Accuser is a fiction “CROWN” or “REGINA” it is impossible to appear in a de jure Court. In a similar manner, a Wrongdoer cannot be a fiction “CROWN” or “REGINA” and must appear in Court.
Practice. An oath or affirmation reduced to writing, sworn or affirmed and witnessed by a Man in full capacity or Man acting as an Officer of an office recognised as having authority to administer an oath.
1. An oath or affirmation reduced to writing, sworn or affirmed to before some officer who has authority to administer it. It differs from a deposition in this, that in the latter the opposite party has had an opportunity to cross-examine the witness, whereas an affidavit is always taken ex parte. Gresl. Eq. Ev. 413. Vide Harr. Dig. h. t.
2. Affidavit to hold to bail, is in many cases required before the defendant can be arrested; such affidavit must be made by a person who is acquainted with the fact, and must state, 1st, an indebtedness from the defendant to the plaintiff; 2dly, show a distinct cause of action; 3dly, the whole must be clearly and certainly, expressed. Sell. Pr. 104; 1 Chit. R. 165; S. C. 18 Com. Law, R. 59 note; Id. 99.
3. An affidavit of defence, is made by a defendant or a person knowing the facts, in which must be stated a positive ground of defence on the merits. 1 Ashm. R. 4, 19, n. It has been decided that when a writ of summons has been served upon three defendants, and only one appears, a judgment for want of an affidavit of defence may be rendered against au. 8 Watts, R. 367. Vide Bac. Ab. h. t.
1. Practice. A solemn declaration and asseveration, which a witness makes before an officer, competent to administer an oath in a like case, to tell the truth, as if he had been sworn.
2. In the United States, generally, all witnesses who declare themselves conscientiously scrupulous against taking a corporal oath, are permitted to make a solemn affirmation, and this in all cases, as well criminal as civil.
3. In England, laws have been enacted which partially relieve persons who, have conscientious scruples against taking an oath, and authorise them to make affirmation. In France, the laws which allow freedom of religious opinion, have received the liberal construction that all persons are to be sworn or affirmed according to the dictates of their consciences; and a Quaker’s affirmation has been received and held of the same effect as an oath. Merl. Quest. de Droit, mot Serment, 1.
4. The form is to this effect: “You, A B, do solemnly, sincerely, and truly declare and affirm,” &c. For the violation of the truth in such case, the witness is subject to the punishment of perjury ” as if he had been sworn.
5. Affirmation also means confirming; as, an affirmative statute.
1. One who denies the existence of God.
2. As atheists have not any religion that can bind their consciences to speak the truth, they are excluded from being witnesses. Bull. N. P. 292; 1 Atk. 40; Gilb. Ev. 129; 1 Phil. Ev. 19. See also, Co. Litt. 6 b.; 2 Inst. 606; 3 Inst. 165; Willes, R. 451 Hawk. B. 2, c. 46, s. 148; 2 Hale’s P. C. 279.
Only Man can believe.
Man can believe whatever he likes, be that religious or what he thought he saw, no one can tell Man what he can believe – for example;
I believe he did wrong to i,
He did Wrong [which could be seen as a Libellous Statement].
Case Law cannot usually be affirmed, as anyone referring to them are reading someone’s interpretation or summary, only by reading around the whole subject can we understand, or better still, a Man turn up and explain the logic on how to apply this Statute and on what situation can it be used. [c.f Hebeas Corpus Act 1679 – a body must appear]. Case Law can only be stated when the originator of the writing can appear in Court, under Oath to Press the Record. Without the original, it is hearsay and inadmissible.
Cestui Que Trust
A barbarous phrase, to signify the beneficiary of an estate held in trust. He for whose benefit another person is enfeoffed or seised of land or tenements, or is possessed of personal property. The cestui que trust is entitled to receive the rents and profits of the land; he may direct such conveyances, consistent with the trust, deed or will, as he shall choose, and the trustee (q. v.) is bound to execute them: he may defend his title in the name of the trustee. 1 Cruise, Dig. tit. 12, c. 4, s. 4; vide Vin. Ab. Trust, U, W, X, and Y 1 Vern. 14; Dane’s Ab. Index, h. t.: 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 321, note 1; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. [q.v CestuiQue Trust 1666].
Cestui Que Vie Act 1666
1666 CHAPTER 11 18 and 19 Cha 2
An Act for Redresse of Inconveniencies by want of Proofe of the Deceases of Persons beyond the Seas or absenting themselves, upon whose Lives Estates doe depend.
Recital that Cestui que vies have gone beyond Sea, and that Reversioners cannot find out whether they are alive or dead.
Whereas diverse Lords of Mannours and others have granted Estates by Lease for one or more life or lives, or else for yeares determinable upon one or more life or lives And it hath often happened that such person or persons for whose life or lives such Estates have beene granted have gone beyond the Seas or soe absented themselves for many yeares that the Lessors and Reversioners cannot finde out whether such person or persons be alive or dead by reason whereof such Lessors and Reversioners have beene held out of possession of their Tenements for many yeares after all the lives upon which such Estates depend are dead in regard that the Lessors and Reversioners when they have brought Actions for the recovery of their Tenements have beene putt upon it to prove the death of their Tennants when it is almost impossible for them to discover the same, For remedy of which mischeife soe frequently happening to such Lessors or Reversioners.
[I.] Cestui que vie remaining beyond Sea for Seven Years together and no Proof of their Lives, Judge in Action to direct a Verdict as though Cestui que vie were dead.
If such person or persons for whose life or lives such Estates have beene or shall be granted as aforesaid shall remaine beyond the Seas or elsewhere absent themselves in this Realme by the space of seaven yeares together and noe sufficient and evident proofe be made of the lives of such person or persons respectively in any Action commenced for recovery of such Tenements by the Lessors or Reversioners in every such case the person or persons upon whose life or lives such Estate depended shall be accounted as naturally dead, And in every Action brought for the recovery of the said Tenements by the Lessors or Reversioners their Heires or Assignes, the Judges before whom such Action shall be brought shall direct the Jury to give their Verdict as if the person soe remaining beyond the Seas or otherwise absenting himselfe were dead.
IV If the supposed dead Man prove to be alive, then the Title is revested. Action for mean Profits with Interest.
[Provided alwayes That if any person or [person or] persons shall be evicted out of any Lands or Tenements by vertue of this Act, and afterwards if such person or persons upon whose life or lives such Estate or Estates depend shall returne againe from beyond the Seas, or shall on proofe in any Action to be brought for recovery of the same [to] be made appeare to be liveing; or to have beene liveing at the time of the Eviction That then and from thenceforth the Tennant or Lessee who was outed of the same his or their Executors Administrators or Assignes shall or may reenter repossesse have hold and enjoy the said Lands or Tenements in his or their former Estate for and dureing the Life or Lives or soe long terme as the said person or persons upon whose Life or Lives the said Estate or Estates depend shall be liveing, and alsoe shall upon Action or Actions to be brought by him or them against the Lessors Reversioners or Tennants in possession or other persons respectively which since the time of the said Eviction received the Proffitts of the said Lands or Tenements recover for damages the full Proffitts of the said Lands or Tenements respectively with lawfull Interest for and from the time that he or they were outed of the said Lands or Tenements, and kepte or held out of the same by the said Lessors Reversioners Tennants or other persons who after the said Eviction received the Proffitts of the said Lands or Tenements or any of them respectively as well in the case when the said person or persons upon whose Life or Lives such Estate or Estates did depend are or shall be dead at the time of bringing of the said Action or Actions as if the said person or persons where then liveing.]
The Cestui Que Vie Act 1666 is incorporated into New Zealand Legislation by the Imperial Laws Application Act 1988 and is abhorrent to natural justice.
1. A claim is a challenge of the ownership of a thing which a Man has not in possession, and is wrongfully withheld by another. Plowd. 359; Wee i Dall.444; 12 S. & R. 179.
2. In Pennsylvania, the entry on of the demand of a mechanic or materialman for work done or material furnished in the erection of a building, in those counties to which the lien laws extend, is called a claim.
3. A continual claim is a claim made in a particular way, to preserve the rights of a feoffee. See Continual claim.
4. Claim of conusance is defined to be an intervention by a third person, demanding jurisdiction of a cause against a plaintiff, who has chosen to commence his action out of the claimant’s court. 2 Wils. 409; 1 Cit. Pb. 403; Vin. Ab. Conusance; Com. Dig. Courts, P; Bac. Ab. Courts, D 3; 3 Bl. Com. 298.
5. Claim (verb) from 13th Century to, call out, or cry out, to ask or demand by Right or authority.
6. Claim (noun) A demand of Right or Right of claiming.
Making a statement or a Claim about a Wrongdoer about a Wrongful [in]action.
7. The Word Claim is from a Common Law origin, [not a Counter-Claim – this is a Legalese word diminishing the word Claim].
8. A Claim is more powerful than a Complaint. A Complaint is a pleading and can be dismissed. A Claim must be answered.
9. A Claim is based on Property and a Wrong/Right.
10. Man makes Claim.
Man making Claim. An assertion of a right or remedy, a cause of action. Man is a Claimant and presents Man, Persons are Plaintiffs and are represented.
Claim Of Right
A solemn belief that an action is Lawful.
The highest Claim Man can make for Property or Right and founded in Common Law.
A Claim of Right, unless rebuffed, stands as Law.
Companies, Corporations, Governments, Police and Councils
Exist to Secure and Protect Property of Man. They are all Artificial Persons.
As in reference to Legalese Codes or Statutes. A Complaint is a Pleading which can be dismissed.
“My wife complains that I did not wash the dishes.”
So, was there physical hurt, did someone die?. No victim, no Law has been broken.
1. The allegation made to a proper officer, that some person, whether known or unknown, has been guilty of a designated offence, with an offer to prove the fact, and a request that the offender may be punished.
2. To have a legal effect, the complaint must be supported by such evidence as shows that an offence has been committed, and renders it certain or probable that it was committed by the person named or described in the complaint.
A Person who makes a complaint in civil/criminal law.
A plaintiff in a suit in chancery is so called.
A sense of perceiving how something works, to take together, to unite; seize understanding (but not necessarily to Understand q.v).
The Law of the Land as written on the heart of every Man wherein we have the maxim; ignorance of the Law is no excuse. This Law is from the Creator, the Lord God Almighty, creator of Heaven and Earth, it is from the beginning and for evermore.
The basis of Common Law is to be found in the Authorised Version of the King James Bible. It sets the standard for civilised society.
For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. Revelation 22:18-19
Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you. Deuteronomy 4:2
What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it. Deuteronomy 12:32
A belief wherein you can be Wrong and found guilty.
Senseless, as in a fictional entity; Person. The dead are signified by the Dog Latin All Capital stylised script – DEAD.
As is a Default Judgement as in the Man acting as a Judge passing judgement due to someone (like a Claimant or Defendant/Wrongdoer) being missing or failure to act at the Court case or in a prescribed, agreed, manner.
1. The neglect to perform a legal obligation or duty; but in technical language by default is often understood the non-appearance of the defendant within the time prescribed by law, to defend himself; it also signifies the non-appearance of the plaintiff to prosecute his claim.
2. When the plaintiff makes default, he may be nonsuited; and when the defendant makes default, judgment by default is rendered against him. Com. Dig. Pleader, E 42 Id. B 11. Vide article Judgment by Default, and 7 Vin. Ab. 429; Doct. Pl. 208 Grah. Pr. 631. See, as to what will excuse or save a default, Co. Litt. 259 b.
Contracts, torts. By the 4th section of the English statute of frauds, 29 Car. H., c. 3, it is enacted that “no action shall be brought to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another person, unless the agreement,” &c., “shall be in writing,” &c. By default under this statute is understood the non-performance of duty, though the same be not founded on a contract. 2 B. & A. 516.
The Latin of illiterate persons. Latin words put together in the English Grammatical system and defying proper Latin Grammar. It is not English but a foreign language and corrupts English script.
Communicating a Threat (Terrorism).
bribery, practising extortion,
extorted, practising extortion.
In terms of Common Law, consent cannot be obtained under duress, or extortion but must be a freewill action made under full disclosure.
Criminal deception. [cf, Sect 240 Crimes Act 1961].
Burden of Proof is on the Accuser to prove the Defendant understood he did Wrong.
An interpretation, consisting of one or more words, interlinear or marginal; an annotation, explanation, or comment on any passage in the text of a work, for the purpose of elucidation or amplification.
Government –natural and political law. The manner in which sovereignty is exercised in each state.
Government is created by Man to serve and protect Property of Man, including and not limited to Federal, Local (Parish/Church) Councils, all Courts and other parts/entities of Government.
Government, being a creation of Man cannot rule Man without the consent of Man.
There are three simple forms of government, the democratic, the aristocratic, and monarchical. But these three simple forms may be varied to infinity by the mixture and divisions of their different powers. Sometimes by the word government is understood the body of men, or the individual in the state, to whom is entrusted the executive power. It is taken in this sense when the government is spoken of in opposition to other bodies in the state.
Governments are also divided into monarchical and republican; among the monarchical states may be classed empires, kingdoms, and others; in these the sovereignty resides in, a single individual. There are some monarchical states under the name of duchies, counties, and the like. Republican states are those where the sovereignty is in several persons. These are subdivided into aristocracies, where the power is exercised by a few persons of the first rank in the state; and democracies, which are those governments where the common people may exercise the highest powers. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 20. See Aristocracy; Democracy; Despotism; Monarchy; Theocracy.
Hurt, evil, grief, pain, insult, a loss of blood.
Harm (verb) – to Hurt.
Origin from Legalese meaning Monster.
A Person, an individual, or a Human Being; these words, at law, define whoever uses them as being spiritually dead. By this mechanism the world makes its attachment [joiner] to Man. The terms, Person, Individual, Human Being, are not in Christ. Words like Individual, and Human Being do not appear in scripture. These are created terms by the Natural Man; [q.v Natural Man]
But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. 1 Corinthians 2:14.
These words describe the old Man, but not the new Man in Christ;
Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds; And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him: Colossians 3:9-10
Human Being is defined as a Natural Man: unenlightened or unregenerate, and on page 1461, Unregenerate means not regenerate; unrepentant; an unregenerate sinner; not convinced by or unconverted to a particular religion; wicked, sinful, dissolute. Random House Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd Edition, page 901 q.v Atheist
Note Well – the Capitalisation of “i” shall not convey a transfer of jurisdiction from Common Law to Crown Jurisdiction not shall it represent any diminished standing.
The male Man whom God has joined to a female Man so they become one flesh. The Husband is the property of the Wife,q.v The Husband is head of the Wife;
For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body. Ephesians 5:23
So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself. For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the church: Ephesians 5:29~29
Private Man not Person in Society.
In Legalese; unable to Contract.
A Person who has been without understanding [q.v.] since his nativity, and whom the Law therefore presumes never to attain any.
Harm, damage, loss, specific injury, wrongful action, injustice, insult, accruable Financial Loss to Rights, Reputation or Properly, in which case an itemised Bill may be served.
Act of joining together, (usually in specific legal senses). 16th Century.
Nature of relationship or contract that joins the parties.
To have control over.
1. Jury Trial – Looks at Facts only (also known as Petit Jury; French meaning, Small Jury of between 6 to 12 people.
2. Trial by Jury – looks at Facts and Law. Grand Jury; traditionally used in Common Law preliminary hearings. Functions include Accusatory, to see if there is probable cause to prosecute, and investigatory functions; ordering documents and reviewing, Summonsing Witnesses.
3. Only a Court with a Jury is a de jure Court.
See Magna Carta 1215, Chapter 39, The Right to be tried by his Peers.
Man derives from the Land.
And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. Genesis 2:7
A King or Queen is Man’s representative should Man chose to be represented.
No Man can Own Land, as this would be as Owning another Man and that is Slavery which is a Crime.
The Crown, being a Legal Fiction cannot usurp the position of Man and own Land, Crown did not create the Land, neither did Man.
Man has a Right of use of Land for his benefit and must be a Steward of the Land which is an Inheritance.
The Supreme Law is the Holy Bible, King James Version. Any Law agreed by Man must be in accord with the Holy Bible.
Law of Man exists in a fiction until it is acted upon, by consent.
Consent must be a Free Will Gesture and cannot be obtained by Decree, Coercion/Force, Deception or Deceit or without full disclosure.
Statutes, Bills, Regulations and Promulgation of The Crown are Rules which only have the Colour of Law and require Consent before taking force.
Let Alone and Leave Me Alone
Let alone; do not wish to Contract with.
Leave me alone; leave me alone but may still be able to contract with.
To be, to live, to have life; to experience, to supply one’s self with food and sustenance.
Live does not mean where Man resides as he would by definition be dead when he left that place.
From lost or Destruction.
Serve a Bill for the Loss, also competency (noun) in 1590’s rivalry.
16th Century, sufficiency to satisfy the wants of life.
See also, Harm, Injury, Wrong.
A creation of God, made in God’s image with His potential.
Born into the inheritance of the creation of God.
Highest form of creation under God.
Born with a freewill.
Man can refer to both gender – male and female.
Not plural of Man, believed to be of Jewish origin, a term used to identify a fellow Jew as in the title Jewish.
Moral worth , that which assumes divine pity, to earn, deserve. Acquire, gain.
Merit (Verb) to be entitled too.
Money is coined metal, usually Gold or Silver, upon which a Sovereign stamps his mark and indicates value.
That which is printed by Banks and circulated as what is commonly called money by Governments is currency / negotiable instrument / promissory note.
“The natural man is a spiritual monster. His heart is where his feet should be, fixed upon the earth; his heels are lifted up against heaven, which his heart should be set on. His face is towards hell; his back towards heaven. He loves what he should hate, and hates what he should love; joys in what he ought to mourn for, and mourns for what he ought to rejoice in; glories in his shame, and is ashamed of his glory; abhors what he should desire, and desires what he should abhor.” Thomas Boston, quoted in Augustus Toplady, Complete Works (1794, reprinted by Sprinkle Publications 1987), page 584.
But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. 1 Corinthians 2:14
The above verse witnesses that the Natural Man is spiritually dead.
The Natural Man in Scripture is synonymous with the Natural Person as defined in civil laws.
Natural Person means Human Being, and not an Artificial or Juristic Person.” Shawmut Bank, N.A. v. Valley Farms, 610 A. 2d. 652, 654; 222 Conn. 361.
Natural Person: Any Human Being who as such is a Legal Entity as distinguished from an Artificial Person, like a Corporation, which derives its status as a Legal Entity from being recognised so in Law. Natural Child: The ordinary euphemism for ‘bastard’ or illegitimate.” Amon v. Moreschi, 296 N.Y. 395, 73 N.E.2d 716.” Max Radin, Radin’s Law Dictionary (1955), p. 216.
Those that are spiritually dead belong to the prince of this world because he is dead himself. Satan has dominion over the Natural Man, for he is the prince of this world
Now is the judgement of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out. John 12:31;
Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in me. John 14:30;
Of judgement, because the prince of this world is judged. John16:11;
and, as a consequence of this, he has dominion over those of the world, i.e., Human Beings, the Natural Man – those who receive not the things of the Spirit of God and reject Christ. Because the bondman in Christ is sanctified from the world, he is separated from the adversary’s dominion over him–sin
Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin. John 8:34.
This is the cause for Christ having sanctified Himself in the Truth of the Word of God – to provide the entrance to the refuge in and through Himself for us.
Early 15th Century, to notify.
Sense of, to point out, as from 16th Century.
Meaning, to take notice of, as is attested from 1757.
Early 14th Century, Person who holds an Office with duties and responsibilities.
1. He who is lawfully invested with an office.
Officers may be classed into,
2. Executive; as the president of the United States of America, the several governors of the different states. Their duties are pointed out in the national constitution, and the constitutions of the several states, but they are required mainly to cause the laws to be executed and obeyed.
3. The legislative; such as members of congress; and of the several state legislatures. These officers are confined in their duties by the constitution, generally to make laws, though sometimes in cases of impeachment, one of the houses of the legislature exercises judicial functions, somewhat similar to those of a grand jury by presenting to the other articles of impeachment; and the other house acts as a court in trying such impeachments. The legislatures have, besides the power to inquire into the conduct of their members, judge of their elections, and the like.
4. Judicial officers; whose duties are to decide controversies between individuals, and accusations made in the name of the public against persons charged with a violation of the law.
5. Ministerial officers, or those whose duty it is to execute the mandates, lawfully issued, of their superiors.
6. Military officers, who have commands in the army; and
7. Naval officers, who are in command in the navy.
8. Officers are required to exercise the functions which belong to their respective offices. The neglect to do so, may, in some cases, subject the offender to an indictment; 1 Yeates, R. 519; and in others, he will be liable to the party injured. 1 Yeates, R. 506.
9. Officers are also divided into public officers and those who are not public. Some officers may bear both characters; for example, a clergyman is a public officer when he acts in the performance of such a public duty as the marriage of two individuals; 4 Conn. 209; and he is merely a private person when he acts in his more ordinary calling of teaching his congregation. See 4 Conn. 134; 1 Apple. 155. Ministers of The Crown Corporation of New Zealand have a responsibility in the Public and in the Private as determined by the Cabinet Manual.
1. Civil and canon laws. In the ancient civil law, the person who was the minister of, or attendant upon a magistrate, was called the official.
2. In the canon law, the person to whom the bishop generally commits the charge of his spiritual jurisdiction, bears this name. Wood’s Inst. 30, 505; Merl. Repert. h. t.
Giving instructions to be followed An Order incurring cost for completing.
Government. By this expression is understood the several bodies which compose the state. In ancient Rome, for example, there were three distinct orders; namely, that of the senators, that of the patricians, and that of the plebeians.
1. Contracts. An indorsement or short writing put upon the back of a negotiable bill or note, for the purpose of passing the title to it, and making it payable to another person.
2. When a bill or note is payable to order, which is generally expressed by this formula, “to A B, or order, “or” to the order of A B,” in this case the payee, A B may either receive the money secured by such instrument, or by his order, which is generally done by a simple indorsement, (q. v.) pass the right to receive it to another. But a bill or note wanting these words, although not negotiable, does not lose the general qualities of such instruments. 6 T. R. 123; 6 Taunt. 328; Russ. & Ry. C. C. 300; 3 Caines, 137; 9 John. 217. Vide Bill of Exchange; Indorsement.
Endorsement and indorsement are two similar words that many writers confuse. Indorsement is the rarer term, and it only appears in reference to certain financial documents.
3. An informal bill of exchange or a paper which requires one person to pay or deliver to another goods on account of the maker to a third party, is called an order.
English, to have, to own.
Also in 1853, to own up, to make a full confession.
From PIE, to be master of, possess.
Old English, possessed by, or, to have.
The noun people has both a Plural sense and a Singular sense. In the Plural sense, people is used as the plural of person very frequently. It is a plural count noun and takes a plural verb. It never has an -s ending; it is already plural.
I am The People.
We, The People.
1. A state; as, the people of the state of New York; a nation in its collective and political capacity. 4 T. R. 783. See 6 Pet. S. C. Rep. 467.
2. The word people occurs in a policy of insurance. The insurer insures against “detainments of all kings, princes and people.” He is not by this understood to insure against any promiscuous or lawless rabble which may be guilty of attacking or detaining a ship. 2 Marsh. Ins. 508. – Vide Body litic; Nation.
A creation of a Corporation with duties and responsibilities to the Corporation.
A Legal Fiction
A name on a piece of paper.
A Man hiding behind a mask, sometimes in a false illusion of protection by his office, A Person also holds Rank/Status within society.
A fiction with duties and responsibilities to The Crown .
1. A Natural Person is considered as [Wo]Man, and children. [q.v Natural Person]. In law, Man and Person are not exactly synonymous terms. A Person is a Natural Person considered according to the rank he holds in society, with all the privileges to which the place he holds entitles him, and the duties which it imposes.
2. Man cannot be a Natural Person on account of the Holy Spirit which resideth within Man and the Natural Person is of this world and dominated by the prince of this world, Satan. [There can be no darkness where there is light].
That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not. He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. John 1:9-13.
For at one time you were darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light. Ephesians 5:8
3. It is also used to denote a Corporation which is an Artificial Person. 1 Bl. Com. 123; 4 Bing. 669; C. 33 Eng. C. L R. 488; Wooddes. Lect. 116; Bac. Us. 57; 1 Mod. 164.
4. Natural Persons are divided into males, or men; and females or women. Men are capable of all kinds of engagements and functions, unless by reasons applying to particular individuals. Women cannot be appointed to any public office, nor perform any civil functions, except those which the law specially declares them capable of exercising. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 25.
5. Persons are divided by law into Natural and Artificial. Natural Persons are such as the God of nature formed; Artificial are such as are created and devised by the rules of Human Beings, for the purposes of society and government, which are called Corporations or Body Corporate. 1Bl.Comm.123.
6. Persons are also sometimes divided into Free Persons and slaves. Freemen are those who have preserved their natural God given rights, that is to say, who have the right of doing what is not forbidden by the Law. A slave is one who is in the power of a master to whom he belongs. Slaves are sometimes ranked not with Persons but things. But sometimes they are considered as Persons for example, a negro is in contemplation of law a person, so as to be capable of committing a riot in conjunction with white men. 1 Bay, 358. Vide Man.
7. Persons are also divided into citizens, (q. v.) and aliens, (q. v.) when viewed with regard to their political rights. When they are considered in relation to their civil rights, they are living or civilly dead; vide Civil Death; outlaws; and infamous persons.
8. Persons are divided into legitimates and bastards, when examined as to their rights by birth.
9. Persons when viewed in their domestic relations, they are divided into parents and children; husbands and wives; guardians and wards; and masters and servants son, as it is understood in Law, see 1 Toull. n. 168; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1890, note.
Petition Of Right
1. Eng. law. When the Crown is in possession, or any title is vested in it which is claimed by a subject, as no suit can be brought against the king, the subject is allowed to file in chancery a Petition Of Right to the King.
2. This is in the, nature of an action against a subject, in which the petitioner sets out his right to that which is demanded by him, and prays the King to do him right and justice; and, upon a due and lawful trial of the right, to make him restitution. It is called a petition of right, because the king is bound of right to answer it, and let the matter therein contained be determined in a legal way, in like manner as causes between subject and subject. The petition is presented to the King, who subscribes it, with these words, soit droit fait al partie [let right be done to the party], and thereupon it is delivered to the chancellor to be executed according to Law. Coke’s Entr. 419, 422 b; Mitf. Eq. Pl. 30, 31; Coop. Eq. Pl. 22, 23.
1. That species of superintendence by magistrates which has principally for its object the maintenance of public tranquillity among the citizens. The officers who are appointed for this purpose are also called the police.
2. The word Police has three significations, namely; 1. The first relates to the measures which are adopted to keep order, the, laws and ordinances on cleanliness, health, the markets, &c. 2. The second has for its object to procure to the authorities the means of detecting even the smallest attempts to commit crime, in order that the guilty may be arrested before their plans are carried into execution, and delivered over to the justice of the country. 3. The third comprehends the Laws, ordinances and other measures which require the citizens to exercise their Rights in a particular form.
3. Police has also been divided into administrative Police, which has for its object to maintain constantly public order in every part of the general administration; and into judiciary Police, which is intended principally to prevent crimes by punishing the criminals. Its object is to punish crimes which the administrative police has not been able to prevent.
On the land mass of New Zealand/Aotearoa the Police Force police by consent. [q.v. Police Web Site, Commissioner of Police statement].
Police are peace keepers and swear a solemn Oath;
The Oaths Modernisation Bill;
English form; “I, [name], swear that I will faithfully and diligently serve Her (or His) Majesty [specify the name of the reigning Sovereign, as in: Queen Elizabeth the Second], Queen (or King) of New Zealand, her (or his) heirs and successors, in the Police, without favour or affection, malice or ill will, until I am lawfully discharged. While in the Police I will, to the best of my power, keep the peace and prevent offences against the peace, and will, to the best of my skill and knowledge, perform all the duties of the office of constable according to law. So help me God.”
A Constable swears to uphold the Law of the Land, the same Law that the Queen at her coronation swore to uphold; not the rules of a Corporation.
Constables are empowered under Common Law/Law of the Land and must uphold the Common Law/Law for the Land.
The Oath is sworn to the Living Monarch – not the Crown Corporation of New Zealand Incorporated.
Constables who act under statute rules are Officers of the Crown Corporation of New Zealand Incorporated and are not operating under their Oath but under Terms and Conditions of Employment.
1. By possession is meant a country which is held by no other title than mere conquest.
2. In this sense Possession differs from a dependency, which belongs rightfully to the country which has dominion over it; and from colony, which is a country settled by citizens or subjects of the mother country. 3 Wash. C. C. R. 286.
Possession is nine tenths of Law, the other one tenth is title.
1. The detention or enjoyment of a thing which a man holds or exercises by himself or by another who keeps or exercises it in his name. By the possession of a thing, we always conceive the condition, in which not only one’s own dealing with the thing is physically possible, but every other person’s dealing with it is capable of being excluded. Thus, the seaman possesses his ship, but not the water in which it moves, although he makes each subserve his purpose.
2. In order to complete a possession two things are required. 1st. That there be an occupancy, apprehension, (q. v.) or taking. 2dly. That the taking be with an intent to possess (animus possidendi), hence persons who have no legal wills, as children and idiots, cannot possess or acquire possession. Poth. h. It.; Etienne, h. t. See Mer. R. 358; Abbott on Shipp. 9, et seq. But an Infant of sufficient understanding may lawfully acquire the possession of a thing.
3. Possession is natural or civil; natural, when a Man detains a thing corporeal, as by occupying a house, cultivating grounds or retaining a movable in his custody; possession is civil, when a person ceases to reside in the house, or on the land which he occupied, or to detain the movable he possessed, but without intending to abandon the possession. See, as to possession of lands, 2 Bl. Com. 116; Hamm. Parties, 178; 1 McLean’s R. 214, 265.
4. Possession is also actual or constructive; actual, when the thing is in the immediate occupancy of the party. 3 Dey. R. 34. Constructive, when a Man claims to hold by virtue of some title, without having the actual Occupancy; as, when the owner of a lot of land, regularly laid out, is in possession of any part, he is considered constructively in possession of the whole. 11 Vern. R. 129. What removal of property or loss of possession will be sufficient to constitute larceny, vide 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 919; 19 Jurist, 14; Etienne, h. t. Civ. Code of Louis. 3391, et seq.
5. Possession, in the civil law, is divided into natural and civil. The same division is adopted by the Civil Code of Louisiana.
6. Natural possession is that by which a Man detains a thing corporeal, as by occupying a house, cultivating ground, or retaining a movable in his possession. Natural possession is also defined to be the corporeal detention of a thing, which we possess as belonging to us, without any title to that possession, or with a title which is void. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 3391, 3393.
7. Possession is civil, when a person ceases to reside in a house or on the land which he occupied, or to detain the movable which he possessed, but without intending to abandon the possession. It is the detention of a thing, by virtue of a just title, and under the conviction of possessing as owner. Id. art. 3392, 3394.
8. Possession applies properly only to corporeal things, movables and immovables. The possession of incorporeal rights, such as servitudes and other rights of that nature, is only a quasi. possession, and is exercised by a species of possession of which these rights are susceptible. Id. art. 3395.
9. Possession may be enjoyed by the proprietor of the, thing, or by another for him; thus the proprietor of a house possesses it by his tenant or farmer.
10. To acquire possession of a property, two things are requisite. 1. The intention of possessing as owner. 2. The corporeal possession of the thing. Id. art. 3399.
11. Possession is lost with or without the consent of the possessor. It is lost with his consent, 1. When he transfers this possession to another with the intention to divest himself of it. 2. When he does some act, which manifests his intention of abandoning possession, as when a man throws into the street furniture or clothes, of which he no longer chooses to make use. Id. art. 3411. A possessor of an estate loses the possession against his consent. 1. When another expels him from it, whether by force in driving him away, or by usurping possession during his absence, and preventing him from reentering. 2. When the possessor of an estate allows it to be usurped, and held for a year, without, during that time, having done any act of possession, or interfered with the usurper’s possession. Id. art. 3412.
12. As to the effects of the purchaser’s taking possession, see Sugd. Vend. 8, 9; 3 P. Wms. 193; 1 Ves. Jr. 226; 12 Ves. Jr. 27; 11 Ves. Jr. 464. Vide, generally, 5 Harr. & John. 230, 263; 6 Har. & John. 336; 1 Har. & John. 18; 1 Greenl. R. 109; 2 Har. & McH. 60, 254, 260; 3 Bibb, R. 209 1 Har. & McH., 210; 4 Bibb, R. 412, 6 Cowen, R. 632; 9 Cowen, R. 241; 5 Wheat. R. 116, 124; Cowp. 217; Code Nap. art. 2228; Code of the Two Sicilies, art. 2134; Bavarian Code, B. 2, c. 4, n. 5; Prus. Code, art. 579; Domat, Lois Civ. liv. 3, t, 7, s. 1; Vin. Ab. h. t.; Wolff, Inst. §200, and the note in the French translation; 2 Greenl. Ev. §614, 615; Co. Litt. 57 a; Cro. El. 777; 5 Co. 13; 7 John. 1.
1. A preface, an introduction or explanation of what is to follow: that clause at the head of acts of congress or other legislatures which explains the reasons why the act is made. Preambles are also frequently put in contracts to, explain the motives of the contracting parties,
2. A preamble is said to be the key of a statute, to open the minds of the makers as to the mischiefs which are to be remedied, and the objects which are to be accomplished by the provisions of the statutes. It cannot amount, by implication, to enlarge what is expressly given. 1 Story on Const. B 3, c. 6. How far a preamble is to be considered evidence of the facts it recites, see 4 M. & S. 532; 1 Phil. Ev. 239; 2 Russ. on Cr. 720; and see, generally, Ersk. L. of Scotl. 1, 1, 18; Toull. liv. 3, n. 318; 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 239; 4 L. R. 55; Barr. on the Stat. 353, 370.
English law. The royal prerogative is an arbitrary power vested in the executive to do good and not evil. Rutherf. Inst. 279; Co. Litt. 90; Chit. on Prerog.; Bac. Ab. h. t.
Any enactment or omission caused by the executive which abrogates a right of Man is an unlawful act/omission contrary to the Prerogative and to the oath undertaken by Parliamentarians when taking office to protect the Rights of Man. Such rules are void.
1. He who holds, detains or enjoys a thing, either by himself or his agent, which he claims as his own.
2. In general the possessor of personal chattels is presumed to be the owner; and in case of real estate he has a right to receive the profits, until a title adverse to his possession has been established, leaving him subject to an action for the mesne profits. (q. v.)
Presume, to take a guess about something without liability.
When presumption without liability converts to bearing liability it is then an Assumption.
Press The Record
Testify and give evidence under oath or affirmation in Court.
The only Common Law Court conducted by the Crown for Man to appear with rules that benefit Mankind. In British Empire colonies usually known as “Court of Record”.
Not to be confused with Administrative courts for Crown employees and Queens’ Bench Division.
When a King comes to the throne to represent the people (Man) Queen’s bench becomes King’s Bench.
Notice of Recession
Removal of a signature off a document (or removal from a contract).
Used as a last resort as restores conditions back to prior to the agreement.
An act of Registering is to give away Ownership and Rights of usage and enjoyment of said Property to another recorded on a Register or Registry. From Regis – Crown.
Registering a motor vehicle with the LTSA gives ownership of the vehicle to the LTSA, a division of the Crown – ownership lies with the Crown and subject to their will and terms and conditions. The previous owner has equity right to use.
Man has inherent inalienable Rights and Privileged Actions that Man is entitled to by Birth Right. Anything that impinges on these Rights of Man is known as Trespass.
Rule Of Law
1. Not to be confused with Statute Law which only has the Colour of Law.
2. Rules of law are general maxims, formed by the courts, who having observed what is common to many particular cases, announce this conformity by a maxim, which is called a rule; because in doubtful and unforeseen cases, it is a rule for their decision; it embraces particular cases within general principles. Toull. Tit. prel. n. 17; 1 Bl. Com. 44; Domat, liv. prel. t. 1, s. 1 Ram on Judgm. 30; 3 Barn. & Adol. 34; 2 Russ. R. 216, 580, 581; 4 Russ. R. 305; 10 Price’s R. 218, 219, 228; 1 Barn. & Cr. 86; 7 Bing. R. 280; 1 Ld. Raym. 728; 5 T. R. 5; 4 M. & S. 348. See Maxim.
Secure In Paper And Effects
Many good Englishmen have died in history to preserve and protect their Rights to be “secure in their papers and effects”. (Also meaning Right to Privacy).
Sign, pledge, bond executed by a Man acting as a Person.
A Man possessing a soul, spirit capable of eternal life, granted dominion on Earth, a Being under the authority of God, the creator of Man.
A group of People that occupy a land mass and agree by consent to abide by a set of rules that secure and protect property against foreign invaders and People from within.
Sui Juris; SUI – JURIS
[Latin, of his or her own right.]
Possessing full social and Civil Rights; not under any legal disability, or power of another, or guardianship. Having capacity to manage one’s own affairs; not under legal disability to act for one’s self.
Oath taken in Sworn Statement – see Affirmation.
Fictional Name bearing a burden or liability with duties and responsibilities. Some examples are:
DEFENDANT, PERSON, OWNER, QUEEN, JUDGE, OFFICER, FATHER, TENANT, HEAVY WEIGHT CHAMPION, YOU, ME, WE, HE, SHE……
When written in all Capital Letters it is Dog Latin – a Foreign Language and Not English. You assume you know the meaning of the word/phrase and so you own the description – you become liable in Law. If it is mixed with proper English then it corrupts the script and the script is worthless – void.
When written in proper English – e.g. Person, then these are titles of a Fiction and you can choose to accept such title and privileges that accompany the title and forfeit your Rights as Man.
Understand – ing
In legalese, to stand under a rule, beneath a higher authority.
A Wife is the female Man whom God has joined with a male Man. Male and female become one body. The Husband [q.v] is head of the Wife;
Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body. Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing. Ephesians 5:22~24
Only a Man can wish.
A two dimensional Legal Fiction (Person) cannot wish.
Old English – to wish, to strive after, cherish a desire.
You can draw a liable Man from an Officer or Person (hiding behind a mask) by requiring satisfaction to a question
“Is that your Wish, or is that an Order?”.
Wrong (noun), that which is improper or unjust.
Late Old English, from “wrong, (adjective), meaning, an unjust action, is recorded from 12th Century.
Wrong (Verb) to do no wrong, early 14th Century from, wrong (adjective).
A Fictional Title.
Plural – as in, all you in the lift, get out now.
In a court sense a general form of address usually bearing liability if accepted.